RTM mold filling

The aim in simulating the mold filling process is to predict the course of the resin flow front in order to minimize process time or cavity pressure and to avoid dry spots.

The simulations are carried out using specially developed methods based on OpenFOAM®.

Emphasis is placed on the component-level simulation of complex RTM process variants as well as the flow around embedded load introduction elements.

In addition to the experimental measurement of material parameters (permeability of the semi-finished product, viscosity of the resin), another focus is the numerical determination of permeability by homogenization of the fiber flow around at micro and meso level.



Research focus
  • Component-level simulation of complex RTM process variants such as pressure-controlled RTM (PC-RTM)
  • Simulation of mold filling during the production of sandwich components
  • Simulation of the flow around embedded load introduction elements
  • Numerical determination of the semi-finished product permeability by homogenization of the flow behavior on micro and meso level


Research projects

M.Sc. Julian Seuffert
Tel.: +49 721 608-41823
Email: julian.seuffert∂kit.edu


M.Sc. Sarah Dietrich
Tel.: +49 721 608-41816
Email: sarah.dietrich∂kit.edu

Flow front curve (left half) and cavity pressure (right half) during mold filling of a vehicle underbody
Fluid flow around carbon fibers at the micro level

Selected publications in the research field

Micro-Scale Permeability Characterization of Carbon Fiber Composites Using Micrograph Volume Elements.
Seuffert, J.; Bittrich, L.; Cardoso de Oliveira, L.; Spickenheuer, A.; Kärger, L.
2021. Frontiers in Materials, 8, 745084. doi:10.3389/fmats.2021.745084
Experimental and numerical investigations of pressure-controlled resin transfer molding (PC-RTM).
Seuffert, J.; Rosenberg, P.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.; Kothmann, M. H.; Deinzer, G.
2020. Advanced manufacturing: polymer & composites science, 6 (3), 154–163. doi:10.1080/20550340.2020.1805689
Investigations on intrinsically manufactured FRP/metal composites - from embedded inserts to load-bearing hybrid structures.
Bernath, A.; Seuffert, J.; Muth, M.; Roth, S.; Fleischer, J.; Weidenmann, K. A.; Henning, F.
2020, April 29. 4th International Conference Hybrid - Materials and Structures (2020), Online, April 28–29, 2020
Numerical prediction of curing and process-induced distortion of composite structures. PhD dissertation.
Bernath, A.
2020, February 26. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000105945
Comparison of Finite Volume and Finite Element Methods for the Prediction of Process Induced Residual Stresses during Resin Transfer Molding.
Bernath, A.; Henning, F.
2014. 27th International Workshop Research in Mechanics of Composites (2014), Bad Herrenalb, Germany, December 11–12, 2014
Holistic Development of High-Pressure RTM Composite Structures.
Henning, F.; Bernath, A.; Galkin, S.; Kärger, L.; Magagnato, D.; Schirmaier, F.; Thoma, B.
2015. 31st International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society (PPS 2015), Jeju Island, Korea, June 7–11, 2015
Enhanced Viscosity Characterization for Fast Curing Epoxy Resins at Process Relevant Temperatures.
Bernath, A.; Grulich, M.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2018, May 31. 14th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (2018), Luleå, Sweden, May 30–June 1, 2018
Simulating Mold Filling in Compression Resin Transfer Molding (CRTM) Using a Three-Dimensional Finite-Volume Formulation.
Seuffert, J.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2018. Journal of composites science, 2 (2), Article: 23. doi:10.3390/jcs2020023
Experimental and numerical study of the spring-in of angled brackets manufactured using different resins and fiber textiles.
Bernath, A.; Groh, F.; Exner, W.; Hühne, C.; Henning, F.
2019. Journal of composite materials, 53 (28-30), 4173–4188. doi:10.1177/0021998319855423
Simulation of the influence of embedded inserts on the rtm filling behavior considering local fiber structure.
Seuffert, J.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. 21st Symposium on Composites, 2017; Bremen; Germany; 5 July 2017 through 7 July 2017. Ed.: A. S. Herrmann, 681–688, Trans Tech Publications. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.742.681
Accurate Cure Modeling for Isothermal Processing of Fast Curing Epoxy Resins.
Bernath, A.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. Polymers, 8 (11), 390. doi:10.3390/polym8110390
An integrated development approach to combine design, manufacturing and validation of high-pressure RTM composite structures.
Henning, F.; Bernath, A.; Chaudhari, R.; Kärger, L.; Magagnato, D.; Schirmaier, F.
2014. SAMPE Annual Tech Conference; 2.-5.06.2014, Seattle
Experimentelle und Numerische Untersuchung der Infiltration der RTM-Fertigung.
Magagnato, D.; Frey, M.; Bernath, A.; Steibler, P.; Henning, F.
2013. 19. Symposium Verbundwerkstoffe und Werkstoffverbunde, Karlsruhe, 3.-5. Juli 2013