Forming

In the field of forming simulation, methods for the prediction of the forming behaviour of textile and pre-impregnated semi-finished products are developed. Our institute focuses on dry woven or non-crimp fabrics, unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes (UD-Tapes) as well as on the combination of textile draping and infiltration in one process step, which is especially relevant for wet compression moulding. For the macroscopic description of the semi-finished products during processes, we develop methods for forming simulation by implementing suitable finite user-elements, material models and contact models, based on the commercial FE solver Abaqus. In addition, state of the art methods for the characterization of semi-finished products are conducted in cooperation with the KIT-IAM-WK and Fraunhofer ICT, and customized characterization methods are developed for new material systems.

 

Research focus
  • Efficient macroscopic simulation models for component forming
  • Prediction of forming effects and defects (e.g. fiber orientation, wrinkling, gapping)
  • Development of suitable material models considering the anisotropic membrane and bending behavior of semi-finished products
  • Thermomechanical and rate-dependent modelling of UD-tapes considering crystallization kinetics (cooling)
  • Strong fluid-structure interaction for the infiltration during wet compression processes
  • Efficient consideration of mesoscopic effects (e.g. fibre bending) on a macroscopic scale
  • Development of three dimensional modelling approaches to consider compaction during forming simulations

 

Research projects
Contact

M.Sc. Bastian Schäfer
Tel.: +49 721 608-41821
Email: bastian.schaefer∂kit.edu

 

Dr.-Ing. Christian Poppe
Tel.: +49 721 608-45388
Email: christian.poppe∂kit.edu

 

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Comparison of experiment and simulation of the draping of a unidirectional non-crimp fabric (UD-NCF)
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Comparison of experiment and simulation of thermoforming of a thermoplastic UD tape laminate
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Chematic representation of the wet compression moulding process

Selected publications in the research field


A Benchmark for Fluid-Structure Interaction in Hybrid Manufacturing: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulation
Meyer, N.; Werner, H. O.; Seuffert, J.; Dietrich, S.; Poppe, C.; Krauß, C.; Kärger, L.
2021, July 21. 5th International Conference on Hybrid Materials and Structures (2022), Leoben, Austria, July 20–22, 2022
Flow-induced fiber displacement in non-bindered UD-NCF during Wet Compression Molding – Analysis and implications for process control
Albrecht, F.; Poppe, C.; Tiemann, T.; Sauerwein, V.; Rosenberg, P.; Henning, F.
2022. Composites Science and Technology, 228, Art.-Nr.: 109574. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2022.109574
Challenges in characterization of polylactic acid (PLA) for thermomechanical material modeling in material extrusion
Frölich, F.; Dörr, D.; Jackstadt, A.; Kärger, L.
2022, July 4. 11th European Solid Mechanics Conference (2022), Galway, Ireland, July 4–8, 2022
Optimisation of manufacturing process parameters for variable component geometries using reinforcement learning
Zimmerling, C.; Poppe, C.; Stein, O.; Kärger, L.
2022. Materials and Design, 214, Art.-Nr.: 110423. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110423
Material modelling of fabric deformation in forming simulation of fiber-metal laminates - A review on modelling fabric coupling mechanisms
Werner, H. O.; Schäfer, F.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2021. ESAFORM 2021: 24th International Conference on Material Forming, 14-16 April, online, Art.-Nr.: 2056, Université de Liège. doi:10.25518/esaform21.2056
A sequential approach for simulation of thermoforming and squeeze flow of glass mat thermoplastics
Dörr, D.; Ivanov, S.; Gergely, R.; Meyer, N.; Henning, F.; Straatman, A. G.; Hrymak, A.
2021. ESAFORM 2021: 24th International Conference on Material Forming ; 14-16 April 2021, online, Art.-Nr.: 376, Université de Liège. doi:10.25518/esaform21.376
Process simulation of wet compression moulding for continuous fibre-reinforced polymers. PhD dissertation
Poppe, C. T.
2021, November 19. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000140011
Prediction of forming effects in UD-NCF by macroscopic forming simulation – Capabilities and limitations
Kärger, L.; Galkin, S.; Kunze, E.; Gude, M.; Schäfer, B.
2021. ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, ULiège Library. doi:10.25518/esaform21.355
Potential and challenges of a solid-shell element for the macroscopic forming simulation of engineering textiles
Schäfer, B.; Dörr, D.; Kärger, L.
2021. ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, ULiège Library. doi:10.25518/esaform21.883
Towards numerical prediction of flow-induced fiber displacements during wet compression molding (WCM)
Poppe, C.; Albrecht, F.; Krauß, C.; Kärger, L.
2021. ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, ID: 1938, ULiège Library. doi:10.25518/esaform21.1938
A 3D process simulation model for wet compression moulding
Poppe, C. T.; Krauß, C.; Albrecht, F.; Kärger, L.
2021. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 145, Art.-Nr.: 106379. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106379
On the applicability of thermoforming characterization and simulation approaches to glass mat thermoplastic composites
Dörr, D.; Gergely, R.; Ivanov, S.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.; Hrymak, A.
2020. Procedia manufacturing, 47, 118–125. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2020.04.148
Material modeling in forming simulation of three-dimensional fiber-metal-laminates - A parametric study
Werner, H. O.; Poppe, C.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2020. Procedia manufacturing, 47, 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2020.04.160
Methoden zur Umformsimulation von Endlosfaserverbunden mit ABAQUS
Dörr, D.; Schirmaier, F.; Joppich, T.; Fürst, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2015. SIMULIA Regional User Meeting (2015), Aachen, Germany, November 12–13, 2015
Thermomechanical analysis of thermoforming processes with continuously fibre-reinforced semi-crystalline thermoplastics
Dörr, D.; Joppich, T.; Kugele, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Materials Science and Engineering Congress (MSE 2018), Darmstadt, Germany, September 26–28, 2018
Integrated process simulation as enabler for efficient and robust design of composites and hybrids
Dörr, D.; Fengler, B.; Hohberg, M.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2018. Fraunhofer Representative Office Korea 10th Anniversary Technology Seminar (2018), Seoul, South Korea, November 8, 2018
Advanced Macroscopic Modelling Approaches for FE Composite Forming Simulation Using Abaqus
Dörr, D.; Poppe, C.; Zimmerling, C.; Krauß, C.; Schäfer, B.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. SIMULIA Regional User Meeting (2018), Hanau, Germany, December 4, 2018
Iterative determination of the tailoring of blanks for a waste-free composite forming by means of finite element forming simulation
Dörr, D.; Lipowsky, L.; Schirmaier, F.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. International Conference on Automotive Composites (ICAutoC 2016), Lisbon, Portugal, September 21–23, 2016
Layerby- layer analysis of fiber orientation of formed continuously fiber-reinforced polymers based on computer tomographic (CT) scans
Dörr, D.; Schöttl, L.; Pinter, P.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Colloquium 602 – Composite manufacturing processes. Analyses, modelling and simulations (2019), Lyon, France, March 13–15, 2019
An Iterative Approach for the Determination of Tailored Blanks for Waste-Free Composite Forming by Means of FE Forming Simulation
Dörr, D.; Lipowsky, L.; Schirmaier, F. J.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. International journal of automotive composites, 3 (2-4, SI), 323–338. doi:10.1504/IJAUTOC.2017.091427
Zeit- und kosteneffiziente Prozess- und Produktentwicklung für den Hochleistungs-Faserverbundleichtbau im Rahmen der Nasspresstechnologie
Poppe, C.; Zimmerling, C.; Albrecht, F.; Hüttl, J.; Fial, J.; Engelfried, M.
2017, January 31. Marktplatz Leichtbau (2017), Ludwigsburg, Germany, January 31, 2017
Systematic approach for the development of an FE-based process simulation framework for wet compression moulding of continuously reinforced composites
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Kärger, L.
2019, March 13. Colloquium 602 – Composite manufacturing processes. Analyses, modelling and simulations (2019), Lyon, France, March 13–15, 2019
Zeit- und kosteneffiziente Prozess- und Produktentwicklung für den Hochleistungs-Faserverbundleichtbau mittels Nasspresstechnologie
Poppe, C.; Fial, J.; Kärger, L.; Carosella, S.; Albrecht, F.; Zimmerling, C.; Draskovic, M.; Engelfried, M.
2017, May 30. 4. Technologietag Hybrider Leichtbau (2017), Stuttgart, Germany, May 30–31, 2017
Development of a modular draping test bench for analysis of infiltrated woven fabrics in wet compression molding
Albrecht, F.; Zimmerling, C.; Poppe, C.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2019. Key engineering materials, 809, 35–40. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.809.35
On the relevance of thermomechanics and crystallization kinetics for FE thermoforming simulation of semi-crystalline thermoplastic tapes
Dörr, D.; Kugele, D.; Joppich, T.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Proceedings 22nd International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2019; Vitoria-Gasteiz; Spain; 8 May 2019 through 10 May 2019, Art.-Nr.: 020011, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5112516
Experimental and numerical investigation of the contact behavior during FE forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites in wet compression molding
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Kraus, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Proceedings of the 22nd International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming ; Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 8–10 May 2019. Ed.: L. Galdos, Art.-Nr.: 020002, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5112507
Numerical modeling of a hybrid forming process for three-dimensionally curved fiber-metal laminates
Werner, H. O.; Dörr, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Proceedings of the 22nd International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming ; Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 8–10 May 2019. Ed.: L. Galdos, Art.-Nr.: 020019, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5112524
Experimental and numerical investigation of the shear behaviour of infiltrated woven fabrics
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Composites / A, 114, 327–337. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.08.018
A 2D modeling approach for fluid propagation during FE-forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites in wet compression moulding
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Proceedings of the 21st International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming : ESAFORM 2018 : Palermo, Italy, 23-25 April 2018. Ed.: L. Fratini, Art.Nr. 020022, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5034823
Modelling approach for anisotropic inter-ply slippage in finite element forming simulation of thermoplastic UD-tapes
Dörr, D.; Faisst, M.; Joppich, T.; Poppe, C.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Proceedings of the 21st International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming : ESAFORM 2018 : Palermo, Italy, 23-25 April 2018. Ed.: L. Fratini, Art.Nr. 020005, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5034806
Modeling of the Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polyamide 6 Composites During Thermoforming
Kugele, D.; Dörr, D.; Wittemann, F.; Hangs, B.; Rausch, J.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. Proceedings of the 20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2017, Ireland, Dublin, 26th - 28th April 2017, Art.Nr. 030005, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5007992
Modeling and validation of gripper induced membrane forces in finite element forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.; Joppich, T.; Henning, F.
2017. Proceedings of the 20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2017, Ireland, Dublin, 26–28 April 2017, Art.Nr. 030002, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5007989
On the relevance of modeling viscoelastic bending behavior in finite element forming simulation of continuously fiber reinforced thermoplastics
Dörr, D.; Schirmaier, F. J.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2017. Proceedings of the 20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2017, Ireland, Dublin, 26th - 28th April 2017, Art.Nr. 030003, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5007990
A Benchmark Study of Finite Element Codes for Forming Simulation of Thermoplastic UD-Tapes
Dörr, D.; Brymerski, W.; Ropers, S.; Leutz, D.; Joppich, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. Procedia CIRP, 66, 101–106. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.223
Sensitivity of material properties on wrinkling behavior and fiber reorientation of thermoplastic UD-Tape laminates during forming analyzed by Finite Element forming simulation
Dörr, D.; Joppich, T.; Schirmaier, F.; Mosthaf, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2016, Munich, Germany; 26. - 30. June, 2016
A method for validation of finite element forming simulation on basis of a pointwise comparison of distance and curvature
Dörr, D.; Joppich, T.; Schirmaier, F.; Mosthaf, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. 19th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming (ESAFORM) Nantes; France; 27- 29 April 2016. Ed.: F. Chinesta, 170011, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.4963567