Forming

In the field of forming simulation, methods for the prediction of the forming behaviour of textile and pre-impregnated semi-finished products are developed. Our institute focuses on dry woven or non-crimp fabrics, unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes (UD-Tapes) as well as on the combination of textile draping and infiltration in one process step, which is especially relevant for wet compression moulding. For the macroscopic description of the semi-finished products during processes, we develop methods for forming simulation by implementing suitable finite user-elements, material models and contact models, based on the commercial FE solver Abaqus. In addition, state of the art methods for the characterization of semi-finished products are conducted in cooperation with the KIT-IAM-WK and Fraunhofer ICT, and customized characterization methods are developed for new material systems.

 

Research focus
  • Efficient macroscopic simulation models for component forming
  • Prediction of forming effects and defects (e.g. fiber orientation, wrinkling, gapping)
  • Development of suitable material models considering the anisotropic membrane and bending behavior of semi-finished products
  • Thermomechanical and rate-dependent modelling of UD-tapes considering crystallization kinetics (cooling)
  • Strong fluid-structure interaction for the infiltration during wet compression processes
  • Efficient consideration of mesoscopic effects (e.g. fibre bending) on a macroscopic scale
  • Development of three dimensional modelling approaches to consider compaction during forming simulations

 

Research projects
Contact

M.Sc. Bastian Schäfer
Tel.: +49 721 608-41821
Email: bastian.schaefer∂kit.edu

 

Dr.-Ing. Christian Poppe
Tel.: +49 721 608-45388
Email: christian.poppe∂kit.edu

 

Bild FAST-LBT
Comparison of experiment and simulation of the draping of a unidirectional non-crimp fabric (UD-NCF)
Bild FAST-LBT
Comparison of experiment and simulation of thermoforming of a thermoplastic UD tape laminate
Bild FAST-LBT
Chematic representation of the wet compression moulding process

Selected publications in the research field


Investigation of the Membrane Behavior of UD-NCF in Macroscopic Forming Simulations
Schäfer, B.; Haas, S.; Boisse, P.; Kärger, L.
2022. Key Engineering Materials, 926, 1413–1422. doi:10.4028/p-2977b4
Towards 3D Process Simulation for In-Situ Hybridization of Fiber-Metal-Laminates (FML)
Poppe, C. T.; Werner, H. O.; Kruse, M.; Chen, H.; Ben Khalifa, N.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2022. Key Engineering Materials, 926, 1399–1412. doi:10.4028/p-cr2tco
A Benchmark for Fluid-Structure Interaction in Hybrid Manufacturing: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulation
Meyer, N.; Werner, H. O.; Seuffert, J.; Dietrich, S.; Poppe, C.; Krauß, C.; Kärger, L.
2021, July 21. 5th International Conference on Hybrid Materials and Structures (2022), Leoben, Austria, July 20–22, 2022
Flow-induced fiber displacement in non-bindered UD-NCF during Wet Compression Molding – Analysis and implications for process control
Albrecht, F.; Poppe, C.; Tiemann, T.; Sauerwein, V.; Rosenberg, P.; Henning, F.
2022. Composites Science and Technology, 228, Art.-Nr.: 109574. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2022.109574
Challenges in characterization of polylactic acid (PLA) for thermomechanical material modeling in material extrusion
Frölich, F.; Dörr, D.; Jackstadt, A.; Kärger, L.
2022, July 4. 11th European Solid Mechanics Conference (2022), Galway, Ireland, July 4–8, 2022
A Benchmark for Fluid-Structure-Interaction in Hybrid Manufacturing: Simulation with preCICE in OpenFOAM
Dietrich, S.; Seuffert, J.; Werner, H.; Meyer, N.; Poppe, C.; Krauß, C.; Kärger, L.
2022, June 9. 8th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2022), Oslo, Norway, June 5–9, 2022
Optimisation of manufacturing process parameters for variable component geometries using reinforcement learning
Zimmerling, C.; Poppe, C.; Stein, O.; Kärger, L.
2022. Materials and Design, 214, Art.-Nr.: 110423. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110423
Material modelling of fabric deformation in forming simulation of fiber-metal laminates - A review on modelling fabric coupling mechanisms
Werner, H. O.; Schäfer, F.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2021. ESAFORM 2021: 24th International Conference on Material Forming, 14-16 April, online, Art.-Nr.: 2056, Université de Liège. doi:10.25518/esaform21.2056
A sequential approach for simulation of thermoforming and squeeze flow of glass mat thermoplastics
Dörr, D.; Ivanov, S.; Gergely, R.; Meyer, N.; Henning, F.; Straatman, A. G.; Hrymak, A.
2021. ESAFORM 2021: 24th International Conference on Material Forming ; 14-16 April 2021, online, Art.-Nr.: 376, Université de Liège. doi:10.25518/esaform21.376
Process simulation of wet compression moulding for continuous fibre-reinforced polymers. PhD dissertation
Poppe, C. T.
2021, November 19. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). doi:10.5445/IR/1000140011
Experimental and numerical investigation on the impact response of CFRP under 3-point-bending
Nebe, M.; Schmack, T.; Schaefer, T.; Walther, F.
2021. Composites Part C: Open Access, 4, Art.-Nr.: 100079. doi:10.1016/j.jcomc.2020.100079
Prediction of forming effects in UD-NCF by macroscopic forming simulation – Capabilities and limitations
Kärger, L.; Galkin, S.; Kunze, E.; Gude, M.; Schäfer, B.
2021. ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, ULiège Library. doi:10.25518/esaform21.355
Potential and challenges of a solid-shell element for the macroscopic forming simulation of engineering textiles
Schäfer, B.; Dörr, D.; Kärger, L.
2021. ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, ULiège Library. doi:10.25518/esaform21.883
Towards numerical prediction of flow-induced fiber displacements during wet compression molding (WCM)
Poppe, C.; Albrecht, F.; Krauß, C.; Kärger, L.
2021. ESAFORM 2021 - 24th International Conference on Material Forming, ID: 1938, ULiège Library. doi:10.25518/esaform21.1938
A 3D process simulation model for wet compression moulding
Poppe, C. T.; Krauß, C.; Albrecht, F.; Kärger, L.
2021. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 145, Art.-Nr.: 106379. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106379
On the applicability of thermoforming characterization and simulation approaches to glass mat thermoplastic composites
Dörr, D.; Gergely, R.; Ivanov, S.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.; Hrymak, A.
2020. Procedia manufacturing, 47, 118–125. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2020.04.148
Material modeling in forming simulation of three-dimensional fiber-metal-laminates - A parametric study
Werner, H. O.; Poppe, C.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2020. Procedia manufacturing, 47, 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2020.04.160
Methoden zur Umformsimulation von Endlosfaserverbunden mit ABAQUS
Dörr, D.; Schirmaier, F.; Joppich, T.; Fürst, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2015. SIMULIA Regional User Meeting (2015), Aachen, Germany, November 12–13, 2015
Thermomechanical analysis of thermoforming processes with continuously fibre-reinforced semi-crystalline thermoplastics
Dörr, D.; Joppich, T.; Kugele, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Materials Science and Engineering Congress (MSE 2018), Darmstadt, Germany, September 26–28, 2018
Integrated process simulation as enabler for efficient and robust design of composites and hybrids
Dörr, D.; Fengler, B.; Hohberg, M.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2018. Fraunhofer Representative Office Korea 10th Anniversary Technology Seminar (2018), Seoul, South Korea, November 8, 2018
Advanced Macroscopic Modelling Approaches for FE Composite Forming Simulation Using Abaqus
Dörr, D.; Poppe, C.; Zimmerling, C.; Krauß, C.; Schäfer, B.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. SIMULIA Regional User Meeting (2018), Hanau, Germany, December 4, 2018
Iterative determination of the tailoring of blanks for a waste-free composite forming by means of finite element forming simulation
Dörr, D.; Lipowsky, L.; Schirmaier, F.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. International Conference on Automotive Composites (ICAutoC 2016), Lisbon, Portugal, September 21–23, 2016
Layerby- layer analysis of fiber orientation of formed continuously fiber-reinforced polymers based on computer tomographic (CT) scans
Dörr, D.; Schöttl, L.; Pinter, P.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Colloquium 602 – Composite manufacturing processes. Analyses, modelling and simulations (2019), Lyon, France, March 13–15, 2019
An Iterative Approach for the Determination of Tailored Blanks for Waste-Free Composite Forming by Means of FE Forming Simulation
Dörr, D.; Lipowsky, L.; Schirmaier, F. J.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. International journal of automotive composites, 3 (2-4, SI), 323–338. doi:10.1504/IJAUTOC.2017.091427
Zeit- und kosteneffiziente Prozess- und Produktentwicklung für den Hochleistungs-Faserverbundleichtbau im Rahmen der Nasspresstechnologie
Poppe, C.; Zimmerling, C.; Albrecht, F.; Hüttl, J.; Fial, J.; Engelfried, M.
2017, January 31. Marktplatz Leichtbau (2017), Ludwigsburg, Germany, January 31, 2017
Systematic approach for the development of an FE-based process simulation framework for wet compression moulding of continuously reinforced composites
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Kärger, L.
2019, March 13. Colloquium 602 – Composite manufacturing processes. Analyses, modelling and simulations (2019), Lyon, France, March 13–15, 2019
Zeit- und kosteneffiziente Prozess- und Produktentwicklung für den Hochleistungs-Faserverbundleichtbau mittels Nasspresstechnologie
Poppe, C.; Fial, J.; Kärger, L.; Carosella, S.; Albrecht, F.; Zimmerling, C.; Draskovic, M.; Engelfried, M.
2017, May 30. 4. Technologietag Hybrider Leichtbau (2017), Stuttgart, Germany, May 30–31, 2017
Development of a modular draping test bench for analysis of infiltrated woven fabrics in wet compression molding
Albrecht, F.; Zimmerling, C.; Poppe, C.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2019. Key engineering materials, 809, 35–40. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.809.35
On the relevance of thermomechanics and crystallization kinetics for FE thermoforming simulation of semi-crystalline thermoplastic tapes
Dörr, D.; Kugele, D.; Joppich, T.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Proceedings 22nd International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2019; Vitoria-Gasteiz; Spain; 8 May 2019 through 10 May 2019, Art.-Nr.: 020011, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5112516
Experimental and numerical investigation of the contact behavior during FE forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites in wet compression molding
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Kraus, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Proceedings of the 22nd International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming ; Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 8–10 May 2019. Ed.: L. Galdos, Art.-Nr.: 020002, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5112507
Numerical modeling of a hybrid forming process for three-dimensionally curved fiber-metal laminates
Werner, H. O.; Dörr, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2019. Proceedings of the 22nd International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming ; Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 8–10 May 2019. Ed.: L. Galdos, Art.-Nr.: 020019, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5112524
Experimental and numerical investigation of the shear behaviour of infiltrated woven fabrics
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Composites / A, 114, 327–337. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.08.018
A 2D modeling approach for fluid propagation during FE-forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites in wet compression moulding
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Proceedings of the 21st International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming : ESAFORM 2018 : Palermo, Italy, 23-25 April 2018. Ed.: L. Fratini, Art.Nr. 020022, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5034823
Modelling approach for anisotropic inter-ply slippage in finite element forming simulation of thermoplastic UD-tapes
Dörr, D.; Faisst, M.; Joppich, T.; Poppe, C.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2018. Proceedings of the 21st International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming : ESAFORM 2018 : Palermo, Italy, 23-25 April 2018. Ed.: L. Fratini, Art.Nr. 020005, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5034806
Modeling of the Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polyamide 6 Composites During Thermoforming
Kugele, D.; Dörr, D.; Wittemann, F.; Hangs, B.; Rausch, J.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. Proceedings of the 20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2017, Ireland, Dublin, 26th - 28th April 2017, Art.Nr. 030005, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5007992
Modeling and validation of gripper induced membrane forces in finite element forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites
Poppe, C.; Dörr, D.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.; Joppich, T.; Henning, F.
2017. Proceedings of the 20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2017, Ireland, Dublin, 26–28 April 2017, Art.Nr. 030002, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5007989
On the relevance of modeling viscoelastic bending behavior in finite element forming simulation of continuously fiber reinforced thermoplastics
Dörr, D.; Schirmaier, F. J.; Henning, F.; Kärger, L.
2017. Proceedings of the 20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2017, Ireland, Dublin, 26th - 28th April 2017, Art.Nr. 030003, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.5007990
A Benchmark Study of Finite Element Codes for Forming Simulation of Thermoplastic UD-Tapes
Dörr, D.; Brymerski, W.; Ropers, S.; Leutz, D.; Joppich, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2017. Procedia CIRP, 66, 101–106. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.223
Sensitivity of material properties on wrinkling behavior and fiber reorientation of thermoplastic UD-Tape laminates during forming analyzed by Finite Element forming simulation
Dörr, D.; Joppich, T.; Schirmaier, F.; Mosthaf, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2016, Munich, Germany; 26. - 30. June, 2016
A method for validation of finite element forming simulation on basis of a pointwise comparison of distance and curvature
Dörr, D.; Joppich, T.; Schirmaier, F.; Mosthaf, T.; Kärger, L.; Henning, F.
2016. 19th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming (ESAFORM) Nantes; France; 27- 29 April 2016. Ed.: F. Chinesta, 170011, American Institute of Physics (AIP). doi:10.1063/1.4963567