Optimal Control of Electrified Powertrains in Offline and Online Application Concerning Dimensioning of Li-Ion Batteries


Various energy management systems (driving strategies) have been developed to improve the efficiency of electrified vehicle drives. These include strategies from the field of offline optimization to determine the theoretical optimum for a given system, as well as online strategies designed for an on-board application in the vehicle. In this paper, investigations are performed on an SUV electrified by a 48 V hybrid system in P14 topology regarding both offline and online strategies. To calculate the global optimum, the performance of Dynamic Programming (DP) compared to an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) with an iteratively determined equivalence factor is shown. Furthermore, with regard to online energy management strategies (EMS), it is presented how a predictive Online ECMS achieves additional fuel savings compared to a robust, non-predictive implementation. The simulation-based vehicle development allows detailed investigations regarding interactions between battery requirements and EMS. In this context, it is shown how various battery capacities are exploited by the discussed EMS.